The potential benefits of cannabis on post-concussion syndrome include neuroprotective effects, reduction of long-term brain injury, and the restoration of neurobehavioral function. Studies show that the cannabinoids found in cannabis, specifically cannabidiol , activate the body’s cannabinoid receptors present in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues , respectively, reducing pain and muscle spasticity. Studies also suggest a neuroprotective effect that comes from the cannabinoid’s activation What are the effects of Vegan CBD Gummies? of the 5-hydroxytriptamine 1A receptor . In another study, when CBD was administered to rats with HI, it resulted in long-lasting neuroprotective effects, a reduction in brain damage, and the restoration of neurobehavioral function only weeks after the original injury. The range of phytocannabinoids, or those CBs naturally occurring in the whole cannabis plant, provide a vast therapeutic potential, especially once our understanding of which CBs are best for specific diseases becomes more developed.
- However, that window is much shorter than what was previously recommended.
- A thorough examination and monitoring are necessary first steps in concussion treatment, or after any head trauma.
- If the second phase proves successful, a third phase of the research will involve a full clinical trial over the following three years to determine if the CBD pill is an effective therapeutic treatment.
- Positive effects were reported in 48 patients (39.7%), with the most common effects reported being prevention of migraine headache with decreased frequency of migraine headache and aborted migraine headache.
- Δ9-THC is the primary psychoactive constituent in Cannabis (a.k.a. marijuana), hence the name ‘cannabinoid’ receptor.
The DENT study relied on low doses of the active ingredients, as psychotropic reactions were not listed among the patients’ side effects. Numerous studies have suggested that THC has biphasic tendencies, meaning that while benefits are achieved at low doses, the opposite may occur at high doses. If you’re healing from a mild concussion and wish to use CBD as a form of treatment, speak with your doctor as he or she can help you decide how to take it properly for the most positive results. Remember that in order to try to successfully treat a concussion with CBD, you must invest in a high-quality product that is as potent as possible.
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Many football players say they use medical marijuana in order to address concussion issues, but face the scrutiny of drug testing or worse yet, being ridiculed by ESPN anchors. One anchor, when discussing the subject laughed and said the players just want to get high and use medical marijuana as a cover. Hypothermic therapy has previously shown to be effective in cardiovascular injuries, including cardiac arrest and heart attacks. The physiologic benefit from cooling the injured region is believed to occur at the cellular level. By introducing cold to the injury and interrupting the body’s naturally occurring localized inflammatory response, the cellular metabolic cascade is dampened, thereby minimizing the ensuing damage the body causes in response to injury. Post-concussion syndrome can consist of many debilitating symptoms, including headaches, dizziness, nausea and difficulties concentrating.
Nantheia™ A1002N5S is an oral product with 50 mg CBD per softgel capsule. Muscle cramps are another common issue that athletes and sportspersons encounter during training, post-workout, or after the competition. While previously, dehydration was thought to be where is cbd legal the cause of muscle cramps, later research shows that it is because of premature fatigue. When muscles are overworked, the reflexes slow down and result in cramps. CBD topicals such as pain relief cream or pain relief spray are effective on muscle spasms.
But a San Diego lab is working on growing the molecule outside the marijuana plant. CBD blocks those receptors from sending pain signals to the brain, allowing the body to remain in a state of homeostasis. This enables both the body and the mind to recover from any extenuating injuries so that they can return to a healthy state of well-being. In addition to the pain and short-term effects of a concussion, there are many long-term repercussions that will likely impact people who sustain such injuries. Irish Tech News highlighted new research from NUI Galway and University College Dublin concluding that injuries caused by side impacts to the head can be as dangerous as whiplash from frontal impacts. The research led by Dr. Valentina Balbi, and published in Soft Matter, simulated the effects of forceful collisions on the human brain through torsion tests on porcine tissue and modeling.
Furthermore, he is on the Board of Directors of Mylan Laboratories, the 3rdlargest Generic drug company in the world and is Chairman of their Science and Technology Committee. Dr. Maroon is also Chairman of the Medical advisory board of General what medications does cbd oil interact with Nutrition Centers . 4 Little-Known Benefits of CBD for Athletes in Contact Sports – Here is a list of 4 little-known benefits of CBD for athletes in contact sports. A tap on the head is no laughing matter and shouldn’t be disregarded.
- Reports on the relation between HRV and both acute and prolonged concussion recovery are conflicting.
- Research also shows that the mechanism through which CBD interacts with the body, the Endocannabinoid System, has a direct impact on most brain functions, including the processing of signals of pain and inflammation.
- Much of the reason CBD became so popular is the result of its anecdotal effectiveness in treating seizures, specifically in children.
- Not all head injuries cause Post Concussion Syndrome, and the condition does not seem to be correlated to the severity of the initial blow.
- Consider purchasing CBD isolate, and be careful that the label shows 99.9% CBD.
If you’re not sure how much to take, you can speak with a medical professional. Because CBD has been found to have the potential to treat concussion symptoms, many professional football players are urging the NFL to reconsider its position on marijuana use. Their argument is that CBD is a much safer treatment option than prescription painkillers that can be addictive and dangerous. As of now, many former NFL players have turned to CBD to treat the symptoms of a head injury. When asked why CBD has gained so much attention as a potential treatment for concussion, Dr. Hoffer cited two central reasons.
Can CBD Help You Recover Quicker?
CBD works to hinder the formations of these cells while stimulating the production of healthy minocycline instead. A concussion is more common than you would think, there are even more events that go undiagnosed. A recent study that shows that childhood concussions can affect the way the child develops to become dependent on drugs and alcohol.
There are a multitude of plant varieties of Cannabis sativa plant species being cultivated with adjustable ratios of THC and CBD yielding proposed therapeutic effects. In addition to CBs found in the Cannabis plant, roughly 140 terpenoids have been identified with proposed synergistic interactions with CBs, as well as independent therapeutic potential . THC, the constituent responsible for the mind-altering and intoxicating effects of Cannabis Sativa was isolated in 1964 , and subsequently found to exert effects at the CB1 and CB2 receptors.
- The focus of his medication is the usage of astrocyte cells, which can act as a “caretaker cell” for damaged cells in the brain.
- Chronic monoacylglycerol lipase blockade causes functional antagonism of the endocannabinoid system.
- Concussion models would be expected to lack notable findings on neuroimaging, and although diffuse axonal injury and mild swelling may occur, focal damage is not typical of a mild concussion unless more severe or complicated.
- When the brain has trauma, it releases glutamates, which are responsible for the calcium buildup over time and cell degeneration.
- This research was timely, and although NMDA antagonist ultimately failed to show efficacy for neuroprotection, the sensory effects of head trauma including neuropathic pain and headache were never tested.
Hemp is a cannabis plant but unlike the marijuana version of cannabis sativa, hemp is cultivated to contain no more than 0.3% tetrahydrocannabinol . It is commonly referred to as “industrial hemp” because the crop was originally developed to produce fibrous material for clothing, rope, etc. Farms cultivating hemp for CBD now have developed strains with higher concentrations of CBD. There are numerous contraindications to be aware of for cannabis containing THC , meaning that there are circumstances when marijuana could be detrimental. If you’re interested in treating the symptoms of a head injury with CBD, it’s crucial that you know how to seek out the very best CBD that’s out there. Because CBD is such a trendy product right now, many companies are putting cheap, low-quality and ineffective CBD products on the market.
Are People With Brain Injuries Using Cbd For Cte Now?
The study was conducted on rats who were given toxic levels of glutamate and later treated with cannabinoids. “What we did was cause relatively light damage to the brains of mice and administered one of the endogenous cannabinoids, 2-AG,” said Mechoulam how much thc is in delta 8 in an interview with Vice Sports. CB2 receptors, on the other hand, are mainly found in immune cells and hematopoietic stem cells. In fact, research suggests that any kind of head trauma, regardless of whether it causes concussions, can lead to CTE.
This impact causes damage to nerve endings, inflammation, and disrupts the natural chemical process inside our brain. Not only at the time of impact, but also in the weeks, months, and even years that follow. Some symptoms of a concussion can be debilitating, and unfortunately, one of the most effective treatments for this condition is simply time. Often, sufferers have to wait it out whilst the brain attempts to repair itself.
Cannabidiol restores intestinal barrier dysfunction and inhibits the apoptotic process induced by Clostridium difficile toxin A in Caco-2 cells. Distinct effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on neural activation during emotional processing. Trial of cannabidiol for drug-resistant seizures in the dravet syndrome. Plasma and brain pharmacokinetic profile of cannabidiol , cannabidivarine Bonbons au CBD , Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin and cannabigerol in rats and mice following oral and intraperitoneal administration and CBD action on obsessive–compulsive behaviour. Cheng D, Low JK, Logge W, Garner B, Karl T. Chronic cannabidiol treatment improves social and object recognition in double transgenic APPswe/PS1∆E9 mice. Carlini E, Cunha J. Hypnotic and antiepileptic effects of cannabidiol.
Marijuana modulates cellular functions such as cell death and inflammation in brain tissue, while remodelling cell structures for better learning and memory. The plant may also ease depression, anxiety and stress related to the onset and gradual worsening of CTE. Recent research has shown that cannabis could be useful in restoring neurological functions while reducing pain and inflammation.
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This finding correlates with the CTE brains that were studied in autopsy. The SMARTfit™ system allows our physical therapy team to address both the neurological and orthopedic needs of our patients – especially those that have experienced a concussion. It pushes one to participate in exercises that help to stimulate the cognitive-based functionality of the brain.
Even though 80–90% of THC is excreted from individuals within 5 days of administration, the remaining slow release of lipophilic THC from lipid-storage compartments result in its long terminal half-life in plasma . As such, individuals may experience very low plasma THC concentrations for prolonged periods after each application. Although the clinical study of TBI-induced mortality reported no data to quantify levels of THC in the THC positive individuals, the low dose THC in CNS injured mice may mimic the pharmacokinetics of THC in humans. This presumed prolonged exposure of THC due to its pharmacokinetics, as well as other potentially neuroprotective cannabinoids, such as CBD (Perez et al., 2013), may be responsible for the survival effects found in cannabis-exposed TBI patients.
Another unique property of the eCB system is the functional selectivity produced by its endogenous ligands. Traditional neurotransmitter systems elicit differential activation of signaling pathways through activation of receptor subtypes by one neurotransmitter . However, it is the endogenous ligands of eCB receptors which produce such signaling specificity. Although several endogenous cannabinoids have been described (Porter et al., 2002; Chu et al., 2003; Heimann et al., 2007) the two most studied are anandamide (Devane et al., 1992) and 2-AG (Mechoulam et al., 1995; Sugiura et al., 1995). 2-AG levels are three orders of magnitude higher than those of anandamide in brain (Béquet et al., 2007).
- The Oklahoma Tax Commission has reported that medical cannabis sales reached $345 million in 2019, according to the news outlet, and the state collected $55 million in total tax revenue.
- “As with the league’s broader approach to health and safety, we want to ensure that our players are receiving care that reflects the most up-to-date medical consensus,” said Dr. Allen Sills, NFL Chief Medical Officer.
- All content at Best Choice Reviews concerning CBD or other health-related matters are for informational purposes only and are not to be considered as a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment.
- This review provides a brief overview of the research models used to study postconcussion headache disorder, as well as the proposed mechanisms.
- Recognizing symptoms of concussions in young children and teen athletes is imperative and may include changes in personality, headaches, balance issues, changes in eyesight, taste, hearing and smell.
Animal studies have shown CBD to reverse the effects of chronic traumatic encephalopathy , that is, the brain damage caused by repeated blows to the head. Therefore, all three receptors may play an important role in modulating post-traumatic headache, and in turn make them therapeutic targets of interest. Whether one CB receptor bears greater weight in tipping the balance of chronic pain for certain injuries or diseases may be identified using selective agonists/antagonists. Furthermore, the most common emotional and mental post-concussion syndrome symptoms are anxiety and depression. To help treat anxiety and depression, many doctors recommend drug therapies, psychotherapy, and behavioral therapies.
The information included here is for informational purposes only and Best Choice Reviews is not responsible for the inappropriate use of these products. Elixinol’s Daily Balance Liposomal formula is designed to be more bioavailable than most CBD oils on the market. CBD and naturally where they cell cbd gummies occurring phospholipids are combined to create a water-soluble formula that permeates the cells of the brain and body easier. The oil has a light citrus flavor and is available in 300 or 1000 mg strengths. It’s sourced from domestically grown hemp, and is non-GMO and gluten free.
Faq: Hemp Extract Vs. CBD Oil
Marijuana is a versatile medicine that can be used without intoxication or negative side effects with knowledge of choosing a medical strain. Sativa strains and products are effective in relieving fatigue and improving function. Tinctures, drops and tablets are a few other commonly used forms of CBD oral ingestion. These products are rapidly absorbed in the mouth and broken down into the digestive system for immediate relief. CBD products from hemp are generally less expensive than CBD products from marijuana, due to the high taxes placed on marijuana products.
- CTE was diagnosed in 110 out of 111 deceased NFL players in a 2017 study published in The Journal of the American Medical Association.
- Dr. Lu, a professor of medicine at Harvard University, described an even more revealing experiment, one in which mice with TBI are placed in mazes that contain high-elevation, exposed “arms.”
- Debate as to the speciation of Cannabis, or a lack thereof, has swirled for more than 250 years.
- All authors contributed to the drafting and revising of the article, and the final approval of the published version of the manuscript.
- Epidiolex also caused liver injury, generally mild, but raising the possibility of rare, but more severe injury.
Researchers hypothesize that this unique CBD and NMDA antagonist compound will impact the CB2 and NMDA cell receptors, reversing the effects of concussion through a reduction of immune response decreasing brain inflammation. For instance, a 2002 study published in the journal Pain Research & Management found that patients respond well to medical marijuana for chronic pain, mood, and sleep. A 2017 review from the University of California San Diego further concluded that cannabis may be effective what does cbd flower smell like for headache disorders (though placebo-based trials are needed). Concussion is the most common form of traumatic brain injury , affecting as many as 3 million people in the U.S. every year, but a growing body of research suggests that medical marijuana may be a useful remedy for certain concussion symptoms. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that CBD may have potential applications for treating brain injuries, including traumatic brain injuries, and concussion syndrome.
This means for children and adults alike, returning to work or school should be introduced slowly, preferably with half-days. If you operate machinery or equipment, climb ladders or scaffolding, or are required to do other tasks that need excellent balance, do not return until you are symptom-free. With strict editorial sourcing guidelines, we only link to academic research institutions, reputable media sites and, when research is available, medically peer-reviewed studies. Note that the numbers in parentheses (1, 2, etc.) are clickable links to these studies. An integrated approach to prevent and treat respiratory failure in brain-injured patients. O -Hydroxyacetamide carbamates as a highly potent and selective class of endocannabinoid hydrolase inhibitors.
Can Cannabis Concussion Treatment Help Protect Nfl Players?
CBD has been widely studied over the last few years for its various potential therapeutic benefits. It’s believed that CBD can help with a wide range of health issues because of the way in which it supports the body’s endocannabinoid system that’s in charge of regulating processes throughout the body such as immune function and neurological function. Now, if any of these symptoms occur following a head injury, seek medical attention immediately. In fact, it is strongly recommended that you seek medical attention immediately following a head injury regardless of whether or not you’re experiencing any symptoms.
Eating a healthy diet rich in protein supports brain health; for an added boost of power, try my turmeric scrambled eggs recipe. Pretreatment with electroacupuncture induces rapid tolerance to focal cerebral ischemia through regulation of endocannabinoid system. Accumulation of amyloid β and tau and the formation of neurofilament inclusions following diffuse brain injury in the pig. Characterization of a novel endocannabinoid, virodhamine, with antagonist activity at the CB1 receptor. Chronic posttraumatic epilepsy following neocortical undercut lesion in mice.
The agency lifted the ban without issuing a specific public statement, but the action was likely in recognition of the massive therapeutic potential for this non-psychoactive cannabinoid. I always tell people to figure out if you want a full spectrum or THC-free oil, then go from there. Lodzki M, Godin B, Rakou L, Mechoulam R, Gallily R, Touitou E. Cannabidiol-transdermal delivery and anti-inflammatory effect in a murine model.
There are some risks related to marijuana use, and the most serious is the risk of a stroke. This is why it is very important to know your doctor’s opinion before answering yourself the question “can you smoke weed with a concussion? If you’re lucky enough to have clinicians who are embracing it, the most common practice for cannabis clinicians in today’s world is you start low and you go slow. But it’s really important because a medical cannabis patient’s approach to using cannabis is 180 degrees from the recreational user. The medical cannabis patient doesn’t need high THC content, for the most part. They understand that they can start with very small amounts and get as effective relief as they want from it, or as the patient wants from it.
If you are in a region where CBD is legal for treating pain and inflammation, you can buy it from a regulated dispensary. Buying online may be risky when there is no standardization or regulation. Whether you are looking to buy pain relief spray, pain relief roll-on, pain relief cream, CBD Plus, or recovery lotion, it is important to check the ingredients list on the label, and whether the manufacturer has the required credentials and licenses. Hampson et al found that cannabidiol has neuroprotective effects, which is primarily due to its antioxidant properties. In fact, the researchers showed that the antioxidant activity of cannabidiol is more than that of vitamin C or E. CBD Plus products, recovery lotion, and pain relief spray typically have a blend of high-quality carrier oils or essential oils infused with CBD derived from hemp.
Mild traumatic brain injury presents a substantial burden to patients, families, and health care systems. Whereas recovery can be expected in the majority of patients, a subset continues to report persisting somatic, cognitive, emotional, and/or behavioral problems, generally referred to as post-concussion syndrome . However, this term has been the subject of debate since the mechanisms underlying post-concussion symptoms and the role of pre- and post-injury-related factors are still poorly understood.
Concentrations of THC, its metabolites 11-OH-THC and THC-COOH, and CBD in serum and brain were determined over 24 h, locomotor activity and sensorimotor gating were also evaluated. In line with recent knowledge we expected metabolic and behavioural interactions between THC and CBD. While cannabinoid serum and brain levels rapidly peaked and diminished after pulmonary administration, sc. And oral administration produced long-lasting levels of cannabinoids with oral reaching the highest brain levels.
Dr. Devinsky administered cannabidiol to 23 patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy. Thirty-nine percent of the patients saw their seizure rates drop by more than 50%. Four patients (17%) had no seizures for the last month of treatment. The body of research available on CBD’s effects on TBI is growing steadily. Several studies point to the endocannabinoid system as an important player in the development of psychological, physical, and behavioral effects following TBI. The reactions include swelling, inflammation, and immune activation.
Cbds Future For The Brain
A brand’s tone creates recognition and a place from which to communicate. Brands with a loyal following and wide customer base often have a well-developed voice driving that engagement. If you’re lucky enough to have a cannabis clinician, use them because your regular doctor isn’t there yet, for the most part.
This can lead to headaches and other complications, so it’s best to avoid all screens including TVs, computers, and smartphones while your concussion heals. “We know that CBD is anti-inflammatory, so it can help to reduce the inflammation while still allowing the brain to recover from those good chemicals that are coming in,” he said. If your concussion was sustained during athletic activity, stop play and sit it out. Athletes and children should be closely monitored by coaches upon resuming play. If you resume play too soon, you risk a greater chance of having a second concussion, which can compound the damage.
CBD 101: How Long Does CBD Oil Stay Good?
There is limited research in the underlying cause and treatment of PCS. Currently, the best treatment is a multi-modal approach that involves assessing your vision, vestibular , and autonomic systems as well as a thorough orthopedic cervical assessment. “Our interdisciplinary research team believes that different cannabinoid formulations found in medical cannabis have the potential to benefit athletes suffering from the acute and long-term chronic effects of concussions”, Neary said. This study aims to determine whether cannabinoids such as CBD and THC can be safe and effective at pain management. They will be specifically focusing on whether these cannabinoids may be able to reduce the use of addictive prescription medications for post-concussion syndromes.
Cannabidiol Protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy by modulating mitochondrial function and biogenesis. Genaro K, Fabris D, Arantes A, Zuardi A, Crippa J, Prado W. Cannabidiol Is a potential therapeutic for the affective-motivational dimension of incision pain in rats. Fujii Y, Ozaki N, Taguchi T, Mizumura K, Furukawa K, Sugiura Y. TRP channels and ASICs mediate mechanical hyperalgesia in models of inflammatory muscle pain and delayed onset muscle soreness.
We review current evidence and controversies concerning the use of the terms post-concussion symptoms versus syndrome, its diagnosis, etiology, prevalence, assessment and treatment in both adults and children. Prevalence rates of post-concussion symptoms vary between 11 and 82%, depending on diagnostic criteria, population and timing of assessment. Post-concussion symptoms are dependent on complex interactions between somatic, psychological, and social factors. Progress in understanding has been hampered by inconsistent classification and variable assessment procedures.
Former Chicago Bears quarterback Jim McMahon calls himself “old school,” and is well known to have relied on marijuana both during and after his NFL career. Yet McMahon’s stab at self-medicating through medical marijuana could be ahead of its time. According to the Dent Neurologic Wie werden CBD Gummibärchen hergestellt? Institute and the Concussion Alliance, there are several cannabis options that may be beneficial for patients suffering from concussion symptoms. Medical marijuana is currently legal in 33 U.S. states, with 10 of those states also green-lighting recreational use.
Once the study is completed, the data will be analyzed and any safety concerns will be addressed. Many years of research shows that the human brain has a minimum of 3 types of endocannabinoid receptors. CB2 is found in the central nervous system anti-inflammatory cells and a 3rd cannabinoid receptor, TRPV1, is found in the hypothalamus, cerebellum and hippocampus. All three receptors are present in the crucial protective blood brain barrier. Elliott MB, Tuma RF, Amenta PS, Barbe MF, Jallo JI. Acute effects of a selective cannabinoid-2 receptor agonist on neuroinflammation in a murine model of traumatic brain injury. Elliott MB, Tuma RF, Amenta PS, Barbe MF, Jallo JI. Acute effects of a selective cannabinoid-2 receptor agonist on neuroinflammation in a model of traumatic brain injury.
Pharmacodynamic effects of vaporized and oral cannabidiol and vaporized CBD-dominant cannabis in infrequent cannabis users. Sofia D, Knobloch L. Comparative effects of various naturally occurring cannabinoids on food, sucrose and water consumption by rats. Scopinho A, Guimarães F, Corrêa F, Resstel L. Cannabidiol inhibits the hyperphagia induced by cannabinoid-1 or serotonin-1A receptor agonists.
- The researchers encourage further investigation and trials to understand the mechanisms behind using fish oil supplements as a therapy and even preventive measure for sports-related brain injuries.
- Generally, most people with post-concussion syndrome experience headaches and pain, which cannabis can relieve because of its analgesic properties.
- Clinical trials testing CBD’s effectiveness in mice with concussion-like symptoms have already shown promising results.
- There are times Favre will run into someone he knows on the Southern Miss campus whose name he just can’t place, and he wonders if it’s old age, regular forgetfulness or something else.
The problem is it comes from cannabis, so the government and sports leagues won’t touch it. Make no mistake about it; a concussion is a very serious injury and should always be treated with the utmost care. If you’ve suffered from a concussion, you know exactly how painful it can be and that recovery requires time and care to reach the other side.
Researchers at Stanford University and Trinity College Dublin are looking at how we can detect brain damage in mTBI. Eoin O’Keeffe et al.’s study in the Journal of Neurotrauma recruited MMA fighters and adolescent rugby players and examined their brains. The MMA fighters were given a contrast-enhanced MRI before a fight then tested 120 hours post competitive fight and this data was compared against impact data from mouthguards worn during the fight.
Concussion Alliance would like to point out that some CBD tinctures are infused in an oil, such as MCT oil. In addition to the miracle concussion pill, Miami researchers are looking into goggles that are capable of effectively diagnosing concussions, something that has proved to be difficult thus far. Dr. Hoffer, who has been working on both the pill and the goggles, believe the two projects go hand in hand. “The pill can’t be effective for concussions if you can’t diagnose one,” Hoffer explained. For more information about cannabinoids and their neuroprotective properties, make sure to check out the resources I listed earlier in this article.
- It pushes one to participate in exercises that help to stimulate the cognitive-based functionality of the brain.
- Food effect on pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol oral capsules in adult patients with refractory epilepsy.
- While there is concern over prescription pain drug overdoses, researchers are focusing on looking for safer alternatives for pain management.
- Given that specific studies examining the link between concussions and cannabis are limited, we must predominantly look at those studies showing the effects of cannabinoids on the brain.
With so many jurisdictions in North America lifting prohibitions on marijuana, the medical field is now rife with opportunities to test the therapeutic potential of the formerly controlled substance. It is not intended to provide medical advice or to take the place of such advice or treatment from a personal physician. All readers/viewers of this content are advised to consult their doctors or qualified health professionals regarding specific health questions. Neither Dr. Axe nor the publisher of this content takes responsibility for possible health consequences of any person or persons reading or following the information in this educational content.